On the basis of an examination of primary acquisition in light of the hypothesis, the bioprogram provides a skeletal model of language that the child can readily. Primary acquisition is examined in light of the general hypothesis, and it is suggested that the bioprogram provides a skeletal model of language which the child. THE BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES () 7, Printed in the United States of America. The language bioprogram hypothesis. Derek Bickerton.

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With reference to the category or the substance of its members, nonindividuated reference seems simpler than generic reference with indefinite plural without an articleindefinite sin- gular with an indefinite articleor definite singular with the definite articlewith their subtle semantic differences. For example, after her fifth birthday, she produced worser and worser. This development of the copula coincided also with the emergence of the auxiliary verb do in elliptical constructions, as in 8a,bwhich was later than such elliptical uses of the meaning- bearing modal auxiliaries can, will 8cand should, to which I return in section 4.

If we overlook age differences, Tazie seems to have developed structural aspects of com- plementation in an order similar to Travis, starting with nonfinite clauses first and acquiring the that complementizer later.

The Language Bioprogram Hypothesis: Hints from Tazie | Salikoko S. Mufwene –

There seems to be an internal hierarchy within the tense system suggesting which distinctions to build a basic system on. Most of the time, the input is a highly developed language which provides the child with stable linguistic rules. Bioprogrma obviously, the more one reduces the lexicon and its accompanying properties, the more similar will be the fruits of the interaction between such a lexicon and the principles of syntax Bickerton14; italics added, emphasis underscore in the original.

Acquisitional evidence does not support this view. Seuren offers an elaborate argument that adjectives remain adjectives in their predicative function. Witness the role of the historical present tense in English and French adult discourse.

Mufwene where a full verb is required. This page was last edited on 13 Septemberat Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 1. Secondary PredPs, called “small clauses” Hornstein and Lightfootare among those that do not require a verbal head in English and French.

Jean run more ‘n Faye. Chomsky characterizes it as follows: The first evidence of morphosyntactic tense lay in the future construction with gon, e.


By comparing Hawaiian CreoleHaitian Creole and SrananBickerton identified twelve features which he believed to be integral to any creole: Although I may be accused of unfairly dwelling on Bickerton’s older position, my impres- sion is that his basic position vis-a-vis the Language Bioprogram and the role of children in the development of creoles has not changed, as shown in the following quotation.

Lectal variation in creole communities today lnaguage variation throughout the period ofnativization qua acquisition of native speakers. There are linguistic-ecological reasons why English creoles have selected dem as plural marker. It was also in parallel with the development of the time adverbs now and tomorrow, attested by the age of 27 months, as opposed to yesterday, which showed up by the end of 28 months. The question is how the child can develop a fully-fledged language, or a proper native language, when the only source of input is a degenerate pidgin language.

A simple recombination of features of the lexifier selected from among the alternatives hgpothesis at the contact setting should suffice to produce a new system.

Language bioprogram theory

Note that insofar as English and other natural languages htpothesis products of a human biological endowment for language, the hierarchical architecture of language emerging here may be inter- preted as much to be inherent in the language as to reflect how children and creators of creoles have tackled their language-development tasks.

Observations on time reference in Jamaican and Guyanese creoles. Verbs in langugae progressive, which so far were used without a full copula, and quite languagd without even a contracted one, did not thus appear to be fully verbal in Tazie’s early grammar. In The joy of grammar: The suppletive past forms may of course be interpreted as lexical allomorphs, but this is not compelling evidence against a finitefnonfinite distinction. They may also have been analyzed as allomorphs of the adult base forms, only that these allomorphs are specialized for reference to the past in the perfective aspect.

I interpret my data as suggesting that creoles 1 and child language are alike in retaining and developing from the most central and critical components of the architecture and selecting typically the least marked typological options available to the learner. Federal funding for the test was obtained, but the experiment was cancelled hypothesiw concerns that informed consent could not be obtained, given the breadth of unknown possible hazards of participation.

If we assume that names are assigned to categories and to their members and that delimitation helps specify the mode of reference, Tazie may be claimed to have selected the morphologically simpler, and therefore unmarked, alternative. Insofar as Tazie’s ethnolinguistic background is concerned, she is African- American, born in a middle-class family, of an African-American mother, a nurse quite fluent in middle-class English, and of a Congolese-born father, a professor, whose overall command of middle-class Bio;rogram has been generally acknowledged as very good by native speakers, except of course for the accent.


Note that, in ethnographic conditions similar to those of child language de- velopment, it would take less time for adults to develop some operational competence in a second language than for children to do so in the first language.

Serialization and subordination in Gullah: Extensions and implications, ed. Bickerton’s specific and my individuated NPs do not necessarily refer specifically, as in the following example from Gullah: Transfer and the substrate hypothesis in creolistics.

The fact that basically the same forms are used for both functions is another reason biolrogram supporting the absence-of-reflexive-morpheme analysis.

Papers of the Duisburg symposium on pidgin and creole languages, ed. Bickertonwhile not abandoning this particular perspective, makes a stronger association with the theoretical linguistic concepts of Universal Grammar UG and Core Grammar CGwhich have also been associated with biology and language acquisition and have become central in accounting for param- eters and principles in grammar since Chomsky Equivocal structures in some Gullah complex sentences.

Therefore, I diary ancl make little reference to the literature on child language, except to Radford and Because II Tomasellowho pose longitudinal considerations and linguistic questions that nately proi overlap significantly with mine.

I suspect the redundant role of agree- ment was an important factor in this acquisitional problem. Initially, these constructions are of limited complexity, though the forms used are not necessarily stripped of their normal inflections.

While part of this observation is corroborated by especially the order in hypotuesis Tazie acquired her complementizers, with the nonfinite ones first, it remains that she acquired more than one complementizer in her core grammar, including the zero form for indicative clauses. The relevant factors for assigning values are articulated in Mufwene a,but Hypothesi will restate them in the course of this discussion. I submit that this reinterpretation is more consistent with language-development facts.