Breviarium romanum: editio princeps: Uniform Title: Breviary; Edition: Ed. anastatica, / introduzione e appendice a cura di Manlio Sodi, Achille Maria. Latin-English Bilingual Roman Breviary – Breviarium Romanum PDFLiturgy of the Hours / Breviary – [pt. 1]. Pars hiemalis — [pt. 2]. Pars verna — [pt. 3]. Pars æstiva — [pt. 4]. Pars autumnalis.
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The Roman Breviary Latin: Breviarium Romanum is breviqrium liturgical book of the Latin liturgical rites of the Catholic Church containing the public or canonical prayershymnsthe Psalmsreadings, and notations for everyday use, especially by bishops, priests, and deacons in the Divine Office i. The word breviaryin general, refers to a collection of Christian orders of prayers and readings, such as contained in Bbreviarium or Lutheran resources.
It may also be used to refer to an abridged version of any text or a brief account or summary of some subject, but is primarily used to refer to a Christian liturgical book. The volume containing the daily hours of Catholic prayer was published as the Breviarium Romanum Roman Breviary until the reforms of Paul VI, when it became known as the Liturgy of the Hours.
However, these terms are used interchangeably to refer to the Office in all its forms. This word breviary Lat. Breviariumsignifies in its primary acceptation an abridgment, or a compendium. It is often employed in this sense by Christian authors, e. Breviarium fidei, Breviarium in psalmos, Breviarium canonum, Breviarium regularum.
In the ninth century Alcuin uses the word to designate an office abridged or simplified for the use of the laity. Prudentius of Troyesabout the same period, composed a Breviarium Psalterii v. In an ancient inventory occurs Breviarium Antiphonarii, meaning “Extracts from the Antiphonary”. Again, in the inventories breviarjum the catalogues, such notes as these may be met with: Monte Cassino about A.
From such references, and from others of a like nature, Quesnel gathers that by the word Breviarium was at first designated a book furnishing the rubrics, a sort of Ordo. The ronanum Breviary, as we employ it—that is, a book containing the entire canonical office—appears to date from the eleventh century.
Gregory VII having, indeed, abridged the order of prayers, and having simplified the Liturgy as performed at the Roman Court, this abridgment received the name of Breviary, which was suitable, since, according to the etymology of the word, it was an abridgment.
The name has been extended to books which contain in one volume, or at least in one work, liturgical books of different kinds, such as the Psalter, the Antiphonary, the Responsoriary, the Lectionary, etc.
Breviarium Romanum Roman Breviary – Latin Prayer Book, Liturgy of Hours | #
In this connection it may be pointed out that in this sense the word, as it is used nowadays, is illogical; it should be named a Plenarium rather than a Breviarium, since, liturgically speaking, the word Plenarium exactly designates such books as contain several different compilations united under one cover. This is pointed out, however, simply to make still clearer the meaning and origin of the word; and section V will furnish a more detailed explanation of the formation of the Breviary.
The canonical hours of the Breviary owe their remote origin to the Old Covenant when God commanded the Aaronic priests to offer morning and evening sacrifices. Other inspiration may have come from David’s words in the Psalms “Seven times a day I praise you” Ps.
Regarding Daniel “Three times daily he was kneeling and offering prayers and thanks to his God” Dan. In the early days of Christian worship the Sacred Scriptures furnished all that was thought necessary, containing as it did the books from which the lessons were read and brevarium psalms that were recited.
The first step in the evolution of the Breviary was the separation of the Psalter into a choir-book. At first the president of the local church bishop or the leader of the choir chose a particular psalm as he thought appropriate. From about the 4th century certain psalms began to rromanum grouped together, a process that was furthered by the monastic practice of daily reciting the psalms. This took so much time that the monks began to 11568 it over a week, dividing each day into hours, and allotting to each hour its portion of the Psalter.
St Benedict in the 6th century drew up such an arrangement, probably, though not certainly, on the basis of an older Roman division which, though not so skilful, is the one in general use. Gradually there were added to these psalter choir-books additions in the form of antiphons, responses, collects or short prayers, for the use of those not skilful at improvisation and metrical compositions. Jean Beletha 12th-century liturgical author, gives the following list of books necessary for the right conduct of the canonical office: To overcome the inconvenience of using such a library the Breviary came into existence and use.
Already in the 9th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyeshad in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
The Breviary rightly so called, however, only dates from the 11th century; the earliest MS. Gregory VII pope —too, simplified the liturgy as performed at the Roman court, and gave his abridgment the name of Breviary, which thus came to denote a work which from another point of view might be called a Plenary, involving as it did the collection of several works into one. There are several extant specimens of 12th-century Breviaries, all Benedictine, but under Innocent III pope — their use was extended, especially by the newly founded and active Franciscan order.
These preaching friars, with the authorization of Gregory IX, adopted with some modifications, e. Finally, Nicholas III pope — adopted this version both for the curia and for the basilicas of Rome, and thus made its position secure. The Benedictines and Dominicans have Breviaries of their own. The only other types that merit notice are:.
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Until the council of Trent every bishop had full power to regulate the Breviary of his own diocese; and this was acted upon almost everywhere. Each monastic community, also, had one of its own. Pius V pope —however, while sanctioning those which could show at least years of existence, made the Roman obligatory in all other places. But the influence of the Roman rite has gradually gone much beyond this, and has superseded almost all the local uses.
The Roman has thus become nearly universal, with the allowance only of additional offices for saints specially venerated in each particular diocese. The Roman Breviary has undergone several revisions: The most remarkable of these is that by Francis Quignonezcardinal of Santa Croce in Gerusalemmewhich, though not accepted by Rome it was approved by Clement VII and Paul III, and permitted as a substitute for the unrevised Breviary, until Pius V in excluded it as too short and too modern, and issued a reformed edition Breviarium PianumPian Breviary of the old Breviary rpmanum, formed the model for the still more thorough reform made in by the Church of Englandwhose daily morning and evening services are but a condensation and simplification of the Breviary offices.
Some breviarjum of the prefaces at the beginning of the English Prayer-Book are free translations of those of Quignonez. In the 17th and 18th centuries a movement of revision took place in France, and succeeded in modifying about half the Breviaries of that country.
This was mainly carried out by the adoption of a rule that all antiphons and responses should be in the exact words of Scripture, which, of course, cut out the whole class of appeals to created beings. The services were at the same time simplified and shortened, and the use romajum the whole Psalter every week which had become a mere theory in the Roman Breviary, owing to its frequent supersession by saints’ day services was made a reality.
These reformed French Breviaries—e. During the pontificate of Pius IX a strong Ultramontane movement arose against the French Breviaries of and This was inaugurated by Montalembertbut its literary advocates were chiefly Dom Guerangera learned Benedictine monk, abbot of Solesmesand Louis Veuillot — of the Univers; and it succeeded in suppressing them everywhere, the last diocese to surrender being Orleans in Meanwhile, under the direction of Benedict XIV pope —a special congregation collected much material for an official revision, but nothing was published.
This revision modified the traditional psalm scheme so that, while all psalms were used in the course of the week, these were said without repetition. Those assigned to the Sunday office underwent the least revision, although noticeably fewer psalms are recited at Matins, and both Lauds and Compline are slightly shorter due to psalms or in the case of Compline the first breviiarium verses of a psalm being removed.
Pius X was probably influenced by earlier romanu to eliminate repetition in the psalter, most notably the liturgy of the Benedictine rojanum of St. However, since Cardinal Quignonez’s attempt to reform the Breviary employed this principle—albeit with no regard to the traditional scheme—such notions had floated around in the western Church, and can particularly be seen in the Paris Breviary.
Most breviaries published in the late s and early s used this “Pian Psalter”. The most notable alteration is the shortening of most feasts from nine to three lessons at Matins, keeping only the Scripture readings the former lesson i, then lessons ii and iii togetherfollowed by either the first part of the patristic reading lesson vii or, for most feasts, a condensed version of the former second Nocturn, which was formerly used when a feast was reduced in rank and commemorated.
Before the rise of the mendicant orders wandering friars in the thirteenth century, the beeviarium services were usually contained in a number of large volumes. The first occurrence of a single manuscript of the daily office was written by the Benedictine order at Monte Cassino in Italy in By a strange twist, the Benedictines were not a mendicant orderbut a stable, monastery -based order, and single-volume breviaries are rare from this breviarum period.
The arrangement of the Psalms in the Rule of St. Benedict had a profound impact upon the breviaries used by secular and monastic clergy alike, until when Pope St. Pius X introduced his reform of the Roman Breviary. In many places, every diocese, order or ecclesiastical province maintained its own edition of the breviary.
However, mendicant friars travelled frequently and needed a shortened, or abbreviated, daily office contained in one portable book, and single-volume breviaries flourished from the thirteenth century onwards. These abbreviated volumes soon became very popular and eventually supplanted the Catholic Church ‘s Curia office, previously said by non-monastic clergy.
Breviarium Romanum 1568 Roman Breviary – Latin Prayer Book, Liturgy of Hours
Before the advent of printingbreviaries were written by hand and were often richly decorated with initials and miniature illustrations telling stories in the lives of Christ or the saintsor stories from the Bible. Later printed breviaries usually have woodcut illustrations, interesting in their own right but the poor relation of the beautifully illuminated breviaries.
The beauty and value of many of the Latin Breviaries were brought to the notice of English churchmen by one of the numbers of the Oxford Tracts for the Timessince which time they have been much more studied, both for their own sake and for the light they throw upon the English Prayer-Book.
From a bibliographical point of view some of the early printed Breviaries are among the rarest of literary curiosities, being merely local. The copies were not spread far, and were soon worn out by the daily use made of them.
Doubtless many editions have perished without leaving a trace of their existence, while others are known by unique copies. In Scotland the only one which has survived the convulsions of the 16th century is Aberdeen Breviarya Scottish form of the Sarum Office the Sarum Rite was much favoured in Scotland as a kind of protest against the jurisdiction claimed by the diocese of Yorkrevised by William Elphinstone bishop —and printed at Edinburgh by Walter Chapman and Androw Myllar in — Four copies have been preserved of it, of which only one is complete; but it was reprinted in facsimile in for the Bannatyne Club by the munificence of the Duke of Buccleuch.
It is particularly valuable for the trustworthy notices of the early history of Scotland which are embedded in the lives of the national saints. Though enjoined by royal mandate in for general use within the realm of Scotland, it was probably never widely adopted. The new Scottish Proprium sanctioned for the Catholic province of St Andrews in contains many of the old Aberdeen collects and antiphons. The Sarum or Salisbury Breviary itself was very widely used.
The ronanum edition was printed at Venice in by Raynald de Novimagio in folio; the latest at Paris, While modern Breviaries are nearly always printed in four volumes, one for each season of the year, the editions of the Sarum never exceeded two parts.
At breviaroum beginning stands the usual introductory matter, such as the tables for determining the date of Easter, the calendar, and the general rubrics. The Breviary itself is divided into four seasonal parts—winter, spring, summer, autumn—and comprises under each part:.
This psalm book is the very backbone of the Breviary, the groundwork of the Catholic prayer-book; out of it have grown the antiphons, responsories and versicles. Until the reform, the psalms were arranged according to a disposition dating from the 8th century, as follows: Psalmswith some omissions, were recited at Matins, twelve each day from Monday to Saturday, and eighteen on Sunday.
The omissions were said at Lauds, Prime and Compline. Psalms except, and were said at Vespers, five each day. Psalms were always used at Lauds, and give that hour its name.
The text of this Psalter is that commonly known as the Gallican. The name is misleading, for it is simply the second revision A. Jerome’s first revision of the Itala A. The Antiphonary of Bangor proves that Ireland accepted the Gallican version in the 7th century, and the English Church did so in the 10th. Following the reform, Matins was reduced to nine Psalms every day, with the other psalms redistributed throughout Prime, Terce, Sext, and Compline.
For Sundays and special feasts Lauds and Vespers largely remained the same, Psalm remained distributed at the Little Hours and Psalms 4, 90, and were kept at Compline.