Insertion, Updation and Deletion Anamolies are very frequent if database is not normalized. To understand these anomalies let us take an example of a Student . Database Normalization: Explain 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF With Examples + PDF: The purpose of normalization is to make the life of users easier. 1NF is the most basic of normal forms – each cell in a table must contain only one piece of information, and there can be no duplicate rows. 2NF and 3NF are all.

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Every column in your table relates only to your table’s key — you wouldn’t have a column in a table that describes another column 2ng your table which isn’t the key.

Janice Garcia December 4, In fact, it is already in higher normalization 2nff. This is not in 2NFbecause the fourth column does not rely upon the entire key – but only a part of it. In our Student table, two different informations are kept together, Student information and Branch information.

Normalization increases the efficiency of the database. Consider a table containing the details of a company. In such a situation, replicating so much data will increase the storage requirement unnecessarily. Ecample often they aren’t Foreign keys can be null even though primary keys can not.


Each normal form has an importance which helps in optimizing the database to save storage and to reduce redundancies.

Then B can be considered to be fully functional and dependent bcn A. Andrea Harris December 4, As Chris said in his response: Insertion Anomaly Suppose for a new admission, until and unless a student opts for a branch, data of the student cannot be inserted, or else we will have to set the branch information as NULL.

What is Normalization? 1NF, 2NF, 3NF & BCNF with Examples

To achieve the same 1NF to 2NFwe can rather break it into 2 tables:. According to the definition of BCNF left hand side should be key.

What is Composite Key? This may lead to an inconsistent database.

Whereas, the Data 1bf is the system which pulls data together from multiple sources within an organization for analysis and reporting. This is not desirable since someone who is updating the database may remember to change the name of the professor, but may forget updating the department value.

Stack Overflow works best with JavaScript enabled. A KEY is a value used to identify a record in a table uniquely. Here’s a quick, admittedly bcjf response, but in a sentence: There are no transitive functional dependencies, and hence our table is in 3NF N1f Table 3 Salutation ID is primary key, and in Table 1 Salutation ID is foreign to primary key in Table 3 Now our little example is at a level that cannot further be decomposed to attain higher forms of normalization.


Here, the issue is 1f in the first row, we are storing 2 courses against Prof. Consider the combination of columns course code, professor name. The lesser normal forms are only worth mentioning because BCNF is not dependency-preserving in a few cases. 2f Normalization is a technique that helps in designing the schema of the database in an optimal manner so as to ensure the above points.

To further explain the advanced step of the normalization process, we are required to understand the Boyce-Codd Normal Form and its comparison with the third normal form.

A better method would be to store the courses separately. What are transitive functional dependencies?

DBMS Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF and BCNF with Examples

Ethical Hacking Informatica Jenkins. George, it can be done in exactly one place. This video might be helpful to you: Suppose there is a company wherein employees work in more than one department.